Please select 7 out of 10 i(150 words each answers)
Please see below
Choose 7 of the following 10 questions listed below. Your answer for each
question should be a minimum of 150 words (half page). Please number your answers and print
the number of the question you are answering above your answers, e.g., “Question 3 answer.”
We suggest you write or print out the essay questions for handy reference as you develop your
1. What were the historical scientific breakthroughs that led to our current understanding
of viruses, viroids, and prions?
2. How do viruses, viroids, prions, and bacteria differ in terms of their biological identity
and method of infection?
3. What are the chemical and physical properties and the lytic/latent cycles of animal and
4. How can viruses lead to cancer? Be sure to use specific examples (e.g. virus name and
the cancer it causes) to illustrate your points.
5. You are growing Bacillus subtilis in nine 16,000-liter fermenters to produce enzymes for
industrial use. The Bacillus cultures had been growing for 2 days when the cells in one of
the fermenters lysed. Explain what happened in this fermenter.
6. What are the defining characteristics of protozoa in general, and, specifically, how can
you differentiate the following phyla of protozoa: Archaezoa, Microspora, Amoebozoa,
Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, and Euglenozoa? Be sure to use specific examples (e.g. specific
species of protozoan) to illustrate your points.
7. What are the defining characteristics and methods of reproduction of organisms
belonging to the Kingdom Fungi in general, and how can you differentiate among the
following three fungal phyla, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota, in terms of
their method of reproduction, method of obtaining nutrients, and importance to
8. What are the distinguishing characteristics of lichens with regard to their nutritional
needs, and what are the roles of the fungus and the alga that make up lichens?
9. Describe the physiological characteristics that differentiate the eleven major phyla
present in the Domain Bacteria and discuss the importance to humans or the
environment of representative member genera from each of these phyla.
10. What is the Bergey’s Manual, and how is it used as a tool in the classification or
identification of bacteria?