Question: Ethics Course, Summer 2018/2019 Review Questions Identify And Explain The Types Of Ethical Examinations. Explain The Fairness Principle Of The Global Business Standards Codex. Identify And Explain The Guiding Principles Of Supporting Ethical Actions. How Would You Classify Mangers Based On Moral Values? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List The Criteria Of Benefit Corporations…

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Get college assignment help at uniessay writers Ethics Course, summer 2018/2019 Review Questions Identify and explain the types of ethical examinations. Explain the fairness principle of the Global Business Standards Codex. Identify and explain the guiding principles of supporting ethical actions. How would you classify mangers based on moral values? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the criteria of benefit Corporations Identify and explain the arguments in support of the firms focusing on Corporate Social responsibility as part of their strategic focus. a. b. 6. What is the impact of a strong CSR commitment on employee engagement? List and explain 7. Identify and explain the characteristics of rights. 8. Edward Freeman’s definition of stakeholders, calls attention for two separate kinds of relationship between business and stakeholders. Identify and explain with examples. 9. There are three models of Corporate Social Responsibility. Identify and explain. 10. Explain John Locke justification of private property and his rational when it is applied fir business

Question: 13. What ISO Standard Contains Guidelines For Auditing Both The Quality And The Environmental Management Systems?

13. What ISO standard contains guidelines for auditing both the quality and the environmental management systems?

Question: 8. List Two Company Benefits Of Implementing The ISO 14001:2015 Environmental Management System.

8. List two company benefits of implementing the ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system.

Question: A Firm Must Have Sustainable Competitive Advantage(s) If It Is To Have Above-average Performance Over A Long Period Of Time. Explain The VRIO Framework. A B Discuss How To Apply The Framework To Identify A Firm’s Competitive Advantage

A firm must have sustainable competitive advantage(s) if it is to have above-average performance over a long period of time. Explain the VRIO framework. a b Discuss how to apply the framework to identify a firm’s competitive advantage

Question: Government Is Not Included As A Potential Threat In Porter’s Five Forces Model. However, Government Policies Can Have A Significant Impact On The Average Profitability Of Firms In An Industry AWhat Is The Five Forces Model Used For? B Choose Any THREE Forces In Porter’s Five Forces Model. Give A Local Example For Each Force Of Your Choice To Illustrate …

Government is not included as a potential threat in Porter’s Five Forces Model. However, government policies can have a significant impact on the average profitability of firms in an industry aWhat is the Five Forces Model used for? b Choose any THREE forces in Porter’s Five Forces Model. Give a local example for each force of your choice to illustrate how policies of the HKSAR Government could have an impact on the long-term average profitability of firms in an industry

Question: E Burger Doodle Restaurant Franchises In Los Angeles Are Supplied From A Central Warehouse In Inglewood. Cation Of The Warehouse And Its Proximity, In Minutes Of Travel Time, To The Franchises Are Shown In The Folle Twork: San Fenando Valley Burbank 28 Pomona 3 35 18 Pasadena 29 45 50 Westwood 2 Downey 32 Anaheim 40 Inglewood 20 27 48 17 5 Long Beach …

e Burger Doodle restaurant franchises in Los Angeles are supplied from a central warehouse in Inglewood. cation of the warehouse and its proximity, in minutes of travel time, to the franchises are shown in the folle twork: San Fenando Valley Burbank 28 Pomona 3 35 18 Pasadena 29 45 50 Westwood 2 Downey 32 Anaheim 40 Inglewood 20 27 48 17 5 Long Beach 24 10 Huntington Beach Trucks supply each franchise on a daily basis. Determine the shortest route from the warehouse at Inglewood to each of the nine franchises. 2. Determine the minimal spanning tree that connect all branches 1 36 25 25

Question: QUESTION 2 Points Save Answer Which Of The Following Terms Are Related To CRM Specifically? (Hint: 4 Are Correct) Materials Management ORFM (recent, Frequent, Monetary Value) Formula OEliminating Silos OLoyalty Cross-selling Procurement System Integration Logistics RFID Balanced Scorecard Opportunity Management QUESTION 3 Points Save Answer Which Of …

QUESTION 2 points Save Answer Which of the following terms are related to CRM specifically? (Hint: 4 are correct) Materials management ORFM (recent, frequent, monetary value) formula OEliminating silos OLoyalty Cross-selling Procurement System integration Logistics RFID Balanced scorecard Opportunity management QUESTION 3 points Save Answer Which of the following terms relate to ERP specifically? (Hint: 3 are correct) RFID Loyalty Cross-selling Logistics Systems integration ORFM (recent, frequent, monetary value) formula OBalanced scorecard Eliminating silos Opportunity management Materials management Procurement

Question: QUESTION 5 2 Points Save Answer Which Two (2) Of The Following Statements About An IPhone Is True? All IPhone Components Come From And Are Assembled In China. IPhone Component Manufacturers Often Change Due To Changes In Demand For The Phones. Apple Simplified Its Supply Chain By Having IPhone Orders Through A Single, Central Apple Warehouse. Depending …

QUESTION 5 2 points Save Answer Which two (2) of the following statements about an iPhone is true? All iPhone components come from and are assembled in China. iPhone component manufacturers often change due to changes in demand for the phones. Apple simplified its supply chain by having iPhone orders through a single, central apple warehouse. Depending on holidays and new version releases, Apple changes the usual shipping method of iPhones from boat to planes, to ensure products are in stores and to customers on time. QUESTION 6 2 points Save Answer Why couldn’t Target’s current supply chain management system be used as-is the Canadian stores? OGovernment regulations were very different O The products were very different Target’s current information system wasn’t customized for Canadian currency or units of measure O Information systems aren’t used Canadian businesses

Question: CHAPTER 4 ECONOMICS AND EMERGING MARKETS 129 Practicing International Management Case Cuba Comes Off Its Sugar High W Ben The Soviet Usion Sill Existed, Cuba Would Barter Sagar With Its Communist Allies In Return For Oil And Other Goods. But When The Soviet Union Crumbled In 1989, Cuba Had To Say Good- Bye To Its Prefereatial Barter Rates And Soviet …

CHAPTER 4 ECONOMICS AND EMERGING MARKETS 129 Practicing International Management Case Cuba Comes Off Its Sugar High W ben the Soviet Usion sill existed, Cuba would barter sagar with its communist allies in return for oil and other goods. But when the Soviet Union crumbled in 1989, Cuba had to say good- bye to its prefereatial barter rates and Soviet subsidies. The only option left to Cuba’s leader, Fidel Castro, was to sell the nation’s segar on the open market. But whereas sugar exports earned Cuba S5 billion in 1990, they earned a paltry $20 million in 2006. Pro- duction fell from a peak of more than eight million tons in 1989 to around one million tons in 2010. With decreasing revenues on world markets, falling prodaction, and inefficient sugar mills that cuzzle expensive oil, Castro had no choice but to shut down about balf the island-nation’s mills. Today, Cuba remains a net sugar in- porter and power is now in the hands of Fidel’s beother, Raul. With the remaining state-owned industrial dinosaurs wheez ing away and the economy under immense strain, the government opesed up key state industries to non-Cuban investment. As a result, joint ventures became a key plank in the effort to prop up Cuba through limited economic reforms. The money came chiety from Canada, Mexico, and Earope all of whom benefited from the absence of Cuba’s neighbor and nemesis, the Unised States, which has maintained a trade embargo against Cuba since 1960. Much of the ievestment occurred in another commodity that Cuba has to offer the world-nickel. Cuba holds 30 percent of the world’s reserves of nickel, which is used in stainless steel and other alloys, and it expoets 75 percent of its nickel to Europe. One of the biggest mining firms active in Cuba today is Canada’s Sherritt Intermational Corporation (www.sherritt.com). Sherrin’s flag fies outside the island’s biggest nickel mine, and Sherrist rigs are reviv ing output from old eil fields. After turning around the ailing nickel mine at Moa, Sheritt received government approval to develop beach resorts and beef up communications and transport networks Although international concerns like Sherritt are free to invest in Caba, they face some harsh realities and restrictions. Caba is burdened with cemplex and contradictory rules and regulations And once foreigsers begin to figure out the rules, the govern ment changes them. “There are times when the Cubans seem to go out of their way to create obstacles,” complained one Europecan businessman. “They need us, we can do business here, so I don’t understand what the problem is” But it seemed Cuba’s govem ment was going to do little to help. Ricardo Elizondo came to Cuba from Mexico to help man age his company’s stake in ETECSA, Caba’s national telecom- Se Aniad i”Cb in the 2010 Ce Re Geitic Paalysi unicatices firm. Elizondo reports that anyone who wants to do cal P, April 2010, p 12-13,S00 M Supemt to C ac business in Cuba mast accept the reality of partaership with a ww.cabe.com My 38, 3010 Steve Lane and Ge Sit”New Cub socialist state. Cuba lacks a legal system to enforce commercial Apr 15,20 C g Fig Pcy Aociaton, igpicyblogs.com contracts, it lacks a banking system to offer credit, and there are w s and dat no private-peoperty rights. One thing the government doesn’t lack is plenty of labor laws-and those are onerous. Non-Cuban part ners cannot hire, fire, or even pay workers directly. They must pay the government to provide laborers who, in turn, are paid only a fraction of these payments. Haman rights group Freedom House (www.freedombouse.org) says one company paid the Cuban gov- erment $9,500 per year per worker, but the workers received only $120 to $144 per year. Meanwbile, there are reports that an aver age of 1.2 buildings collapse in Central Havana every day. Why do companies imvesting in Cuba put up with such restric tioas? For one thing, they are getting a great retarn on their imvest ment. “Cuba’s assets are incredibly cheap, and the potential retum is huge,” says Frank Mersch, VP at Toronto’s Altamira Manage ment (www.altamira.com), which holds 11 percent of Sherrit Analysts say that Cuba is offering outsiders deals with rates of return up to 80 perceet a year. Moreover, international investors acknowledge that the Castro brothers’ regime cannot last for- ever. In a post-Castro era, the United States may end its embargo, in which case, property prices would soar. Companies such as Sherrit and ETECSA, who stepped in first, will have gained a valuable toehold in what could be a vibrant market ecosomy Thinking Globally 1. Why do you think the Cuban government requires non- Cuban businesses to hire and pay workers only through the government? Do you think it is ethical for non-Cuban businesses to enter into partnerships with the Cuban government? Why oe why not? 2. Do some research on Cuba, and describe a scenario for economic transition in the event that the current regime collapses. How do you think transition to a market econ omy in Cuba would differ from the experiences of Russia. and China? 3. The United States has enacted a law that permits U.S. com- panies to sue companies from other nations that traffic in the property of U.S. firms nationalized by Cuba. The laws also empowers the U.S. government to deny entry visas to the executives of sach firms as well as their families. Why does the United States maintain such a hard line against doing business with Cuba? Do youu think this embargo is in the United States’ best interests? Why or why not? No Bs Home Ranoober i k (wwwbi .cm Py

Question: Kelle Carpet And Trim Installs Carpet In Commercial Offices. Peter Kelle Has Been Very Concerned With The Amount Of Time It Took To Complete Several Recent Jobs. Some Of His Workers Are Very Unreliable. A List Of Activities And Their Optimistic Completion​ Time, The Most Likely Completion​ Time,and The Pessimistic Completion Time​(all In​ Days) …

Time (days) Time (days) Immediate Immediate Predecessor(s) Activity Predecessor(s) A, E Activity b b m a A 6 1 2 3 10 11 12 4 6 8 F 13 G C 1 2 3 11 12 7 8 C J 13 15 17 C D 1 3 B, D A, E K 8 12 H. I E 5 6 10 15 F This exercise contains only parts b, c, and d. b) Activities on the critical path for the project are The total project completion time is days. (Round your response to two decimal places.) e) For the given preiect the earliest start /ES) and earliest finish (EE) are c) For the given project, the earliest start (ES) and earliest finish (EF) are: (Round your responses to two decimal places.) EF Activity ES A C D F F G H K For the given project, the latest start (LS) and latest finish (LF) are (Round your responses to two decimal places) LF LS Activity K H G F E B A d) Referring to the standard normal table, the probability that Kelle Carpet and Trim will finish the project in 42 days or less is(Enter as a probability and round your response to two decimal places)

Question: Goal: $50,000 Net Worth Account Balance Net Worth $11,545.97 $9,945.97 Question Why Is It Important To Understand The Amount Of Set-up Time Required For Each Te Order? Please Write Your Answer N Thod End Turn Go Back Home SOund On Q New Tab Sears Gmal My Em X M Mcgraw HEL X Chapter 11 Pr 0 M How- Charle X Medcal Imple MHactice MM H C O Not Secure Erto.mheducation.com/hem.tpx?0.7089995105990374…

Get college assignment help at uniessay writers Goal: $50,000 Net Worth Account Balance Net Worth $11,545.97 $9,945.97 Question Why is it important to understand the amount of set-up time required for each te order? Please write your answer n thod end turn go back home SOund on Q New Tab Sears gmal My Em x M Mcgraw HEL X Chapter 11 Pr 0 M how- charle X Medcal Imple MHactice MM H C O Not secure erto.mheducation.com/hem.tpx?0.7089995105990374 1560862592635 velue 10.00 points Problem 11-6 Suppose Jones Company has orders from three customers located in the same manket area One order has a total weight of 4,000 pounds, the second weighs 8,000 pounds, and the third weighs 14,000 pounds. The transportation camer quotes a freight rate of $20.00 per hundredweight (or cwt) for direct shipment to the customer for shipments weighing 1,000 to 4,999 pounds, $18.00 per cat for orders weighing 5,000 to 9,999 pounds, and $16.00 for shipments weighing between 10,000 and 15,000 pounds. Altematively, the camers rate for shipments weighing more than 20,000 pounds is $13.50 per cwt. However, if the orders are combined into one consolidated shipment, the camer will charge $200 for each stop it is required to make a. Calculate the total cost with or without consolidated shipment charge Total cost using separate shipments Total cost using consolidated shipment b. Should Jones consolidate the three shipments? Yes O No References 858 A 6/18/2 Type here to search

Question: Ack For Question 2, Would You Have Options For Each Of Those Types Or Just One Question Asking About Their Ents Preferred Media Platform? 2. Please Rank From 1 -7 How Attitudes Related To Global Warming Vary By Market Segment. Please Keep In Mind Market Segments Are Defined By The Following Demographics. Age Income Education Gender Family Size Hometown …

ack For question 2, would you have options for each of those types or just one question asking about their ents preferred media platform? 2. Please rank from 1 -7 how attitudes related to global warming vary by market segment. Please keep in mind market segments are defined by the following demographics. Age Income Education Gender Family size Hometown size Dwelling size Now as it relates to online survey question I would proceed as follows: Question 2. What is your preferred media platform? Newspapers, (Local, state, national) Television (comedy, drama, sports, reality, documentary) Radio, (easy listening, country, top 40’s, hip hop, oldies, jazz, etc.) Magazines, (general interest, business, science, sports, cooking, parenting, etc..)

Question: MPactice- MM X U NSI Secure Erto.mheducation.com/hm.tpx-0.7089995 105990374,1560862592635 Connect Chapter 11 Problem #6 2019 Instructions I Help- Question 1 (of 1 Save

MPactice- MM x U NSI secure erto.mheducation.com/hm.tpx-0.7089995 105990374,1560862592635 connect Chapter 11 Problem #6 2019 Instructions I help- Question 1 (of 1 Save

Question: Original Answers Only PLEASE MT302M6: Analyze Organizational Structure And Culture In An Organization. Read The Scenario And Address The Checklist Items. Scenario: ROBoInc. Is A Robotics Software Company With 100 Employees Located In Bismarck, North Dakota In The United States. Up Until Now, The Culture Is Fairly Strongly Established As A Hard Working …

CEO-ROBOINC. Location: North Dakota V.P. of Finance/HR Director of Director ofDirector of Production Marketing Director of Customer Sales Service 14 30 Sales staff 40 15 Customer Marketing staff Software Engineers Service staff

Question: The Following Table Lists The Components Needed To Assemble An End Item, Lead Times, And Quantities On Hand. Item End D G H LT (wk) Amount On Hand 2 2 2 11 23 27 4 End Item B (2) D (3) E (3 E (2) G (2) E (2) H (4) E (2) A. If 18 Units Of The End Item Are To Be Assembled, How Many Additional Units Of E Are Needed? (Hint. You Don’t Need To Develop An …

The following table lists the components needed to assemble an end item, lead times, and quantities on hand. Item End D G H LT (wk) Amount on hand 2 2 2 11 23 27 4 End Item B (2) D (3) E (3 E (2) G (2) E (2) H (4) E (2) a. If 18 units of the end item are to be assembled, how many additional units of E are needed? (Hint. You don’t need to develop an MRP plan to determine this.) Additional units b. An order for the end item is scheduled to be shipped at the start of week 13. What is the latest week that the order can be started and still be ready to ship on time? (Hint You don’t need to develop an MRP plan for this part either.) The latest week UNO CN00 NO

Question: THAT I HAVE TO KNOW 1. Give Some Reasons Why Having An On-premise Laundry Can Be More Advantageous Than Having The Linen Processed By An Outside Commercial Company 2. “Setting Up A Laundry Room Requires A Detailed Analysis Of The Property’s Needs And Requirements.” Explain The Meaning Of This Statement. 3.Explain The Steps Needed To Design A Laundry …

THAT I HAVE TO KNOW 1. Give some reasons why having an on-premise laundry can be more advantageous than having the linen processed by an outside commercial company 2. “Setting up a laundry room requires a detailed analysis of the property’s needs and requirements.” Explain the meaning of this statement. 3.Explain the steps needed to design a laundry room What are the benefits of installing washers featuring single- pivot tilts? Why are washers with a high G-force preferable to washers with a lower spinning power? 6 Define a property’s poundage 7. What is the purpose of adding softeners to the final washing cycle? 8. How should the training of laundry workers who do not read English be conducted? Which are some specifications that should be detailed in a contract for laundering services with an outside commercial company? 10. Based on the national averages given in the “Laundry Operating Costs” of this chapter, what should have been the breakdown for “labor,” “linen replacement,” “energy,” “laundry chemicals,” and “other expenses” if the total cost of operating the laundry department had been $47,600? 11. Draw an “ideal” floor plan of a laundry room that has four washers, seven dryers, and one mangle (include soak sinks folding tables, one sheet folder stand, and the entrance and exit to the laundry) 12. What are the advantages and disadvantages of offering valet service to guests in lodging properties? 4 5. 9

Question: 13. Explain Why Housekeeping Departments In Lodging Operations Must Compile Standard Operating Procedures For The Operative Routines Of The Department Explain The Purpose Of The Front Desk Report. After Receiving The Front Desk Report, What Must The Housekeeping Supervisor Verify? 16. Which Two Reports Are Compiled From The Information Received On The …

13. Explain why housekeeping departments in lodging operations must compile standard operating procedures for the operative routines of the department Explain the purpose of the front desk report. After receiving the front desk report, what must the housekeeping supervisor verify? 16. Which two reports are compiled from the information received on the front desk report? 17. What is the reason why section housekeepers should not knock on all guestrooms of their sections early in the morning? 18. What is the difference between the A.M. report and the P.M. report generated in the housekeeping department? 19. Briefly describe cleaning procedures for guestrooms 20. List the minimum types of chemicals needed to service a bathroom Why is that the lost-and-found function is usually administered by the housekeeping department in lodging properties? 22. What is the difference between a maintenance inspection checklist and a maintenance work order? 14, 5. 21 Describe the purpose of stripping, sealing, and finishing floors? 23. 24. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ceramic floors?

Question: The Following Table Lists The Components Needed To Assemble An End Item, Lead Times (in Weeks), And Quantities On Hand Amount Lead Time Direct Components L (2), C(1), K (3) B(2), J(3) G(2), B (2) Н(4), вВ(2) Item On Hand End L C 12 К 4 18 B 29 30 A G 7 2 H A. If 43 Units Of The End Item Are To Be Assembled, How Many Additional Units Of B Are Needed? …

The following table lists the components needed to assemble an end item, lead times (in weeks), and quantities on hand Amount Lead Time Direct Components L (2), C(1), K (3) B(2), J(3) G(2), B (2) Н(4), вВ(2) Item on Hand End L C 12 К 4 18 B 29 30 A G 7 2 H a. If 43 units of the end item are to be assembled, how many additional units of B are needed? (Hint You don’t need to develop an MRP plan.) Additional units b. An order for the end item is scheduled to be shipped at the start of week 16. What is the latest week that the order can be started and still be ready to ship on time? (Hint. You don’t need to develop an MRP plan.) The latest week mm st stm st st

Question: Develop The Material Requirements Plan For Component E Using Lot-for-lot Ordering. (Leave No Cells Blank Be Certain To Enter “O” Wherever Reguired Item: E(3)

Develop the material requirements plan for component E using lot-for-lot ordering. (Leave no cells blank be certain to enter “O” wherever reguired Item: E(3)

Question: Choose One Of The Topics Discussed This Week. Submit A 400-500 Word Essay Comparing American Law To The Law Of Your Country Of Origin On The Topic You Have Chosen. For Example, In America, If A Person Dies Without A Trust Or A Will, Their Property Is Disbursed In A Manner Called Intestate” Where The Court Looks At The First Level Of Beneficiaries And …

Choose one of the topics discussed this week. Submit a 400-500 word essay comparing American law to the law of your country of origin on the topic you have chosen. For example, in America, if a person dies without a trust or a will, their property is disbursed in a manner called intestate” where the court looks at the first level of beneficiaries and divides everything equally. There are also taxes that are incorporated depending on how a person’s estate has been dictated. Compare this with an American who owns property in Mexica. If they have an American will or trust, it can cause significant time delay, tax implications, and challenges with the Mexican legal system as the property is distributed. Altenatively, if there is a will or trust executed pursuant to Mexican law, the system becomes much less of a burden on the beneficíaries. Submit your paper comparing American law with the law of your native country on the topic of your choice The subject (class) is Business law,The topic that we discussed this week is: LO1 The Nature of Personal Property Property is divided into two categories Real property: land

Question: Before The ONE Ford Vision, What Type Of Strategy Did Ford Use To Compete In The Global Marketplace: International, Global, Multidomestic, Or Transnational? What Evidence Do You Find In The Case To Support Your Choice Of Strategy? Also, Was This Strategy Successful Or Unsuccessful? What Were The Risks And Challenges Of This Strategy For Ford After Years …

Pane CASE 33 IS ONE FORD REALLY WORKING?” In January 2015 Ford Motor Company reported its best January sales performance since 2004. Retail sales were up for passenger cars and utility vehicles, with the Mustang, Lincoln MKC, Lincoln Navigator, Explorer, and Escape leading the way. The Transit van segment also had its best January sales results since 2001, but the real star, as always, was the Ford F-Series pickup,America’s best-selling truck for the 38th straight year. The all-new F-150, which hit an all-time annual record of 54,370 vehicles sold in January, was named 2015 North American Truck of the Year. Ford was hoping for a big year in 2015, driven primarily by the F-150 popularity. New CEO Mark Fields was relying on North American sales in 2015 to offset increasing losses in Europe, as well as uncertainty in Asia as Ford continued its cautious introduction of Lincoln into the Chinese luxury-vehicle market. Ford needed all the good news it could get, having posted a 2014 year-end profit that saw a 56 percent drop from 2013. As CEO Fields remarked, [Last year] was a solid yet challenging year for Ford-with our investments and a record number of new products launched around the world positioning us for strong growth this year and beyond… The entire Ford team remains focused on our three priorities of accelerating our ONE Ford plan, delivering product excellence and driving innovation in every part of the business. Given the current lackluster performance and associated ambivalence of the investment community in the wake of Ford’s disappointing year-end numbers, Mark Fields had some significant decisions to make in the coming year. Fields had been promoted to CEO in July 2014 upon the retirement of Alan Mulally, who was widely hailed as one of the “five most significant corporate leaders of the last decade” and was the architect of Ford’s eight-year turnaround from the brink of bankruptcy in 2006. It was Mulally who had created the vision that drove Ford’s revitalization-“ONE Ford.” The ONE Ford message was intended to communicate consistency across all departments and all segments of the company, requiring people to work together as one team, with one plan, and one goal: “an exciting viable Ford delivering profitable growth for all.” Mulally had wanted to leverage Ford’s unique automotive knowledge and assets to build cars and trucks that people wanted and valued, and he had managed to arrange the financing necessary to pay for it all. The 2009 economic downturn that caused a financial catastrophe for U.S. automakers had trapped General Motors and Chrysler in emergency government loans, but Ford was able to avoid bankruptcy due to Mulally’s actions. Focus 131% ge 1 of 25 7843 words R R 19 MacBook Air Calibri (Body) A A Aa 11 abe X2 X2 A B I U Styles Styles Pane Mulally had worked to create a culture of accountability and collaboration across the company, and he had groomed his successor, Mark Fields, since 2012, instlling confidence among the company’s stakeholders that Ford would be able to continue to be profitable once Mulally stepped down. Even with this preparation, CEO Fields was facing an industry affected by general economic conditions over which he had little control and a changing technological and sociocultural environment in which consumer preferences were difficult to predict. Fields would have to anticipate and address numerous challenges as he positioned the company for continued success. Attempts at repositioning Ford had been under way for many years. In the 1990s, former CEO Jacques Nasser had emphasized acquisitions to reshape Ford, but day-to-day business activities were ignored in the process. When Nasser left in October 2001, Bill Ford, great-grandson of company founder Henry Ford, took over and emphasized innovation as a core strategy to reshape Ford. In an attempt to stem the downward slide at Ford, and perhaps to jump-start a turnaround, Bill Ford recruited Alan Mulally, who was elected as president and chief executive officer of Ford on September 5, 2006. Mulally, former head of commercial airplanes at Boeing was expected to steer the struggling automaker out of the problems of falling market share and serious financial losses. Mulally created his vision of “ONE Ford” to reshape the company, and in 2009 he finally achieved profitability, committing to remaining “on track for both [Ford’s] overall and North American Automotive pre-tax results to be breakeven or profitable” in the coming years. Mulally was able to sustain this success past the initial stages of his tepure and maintained profitability until his retirement in June 2014 Mark Fields would have to take over from there (see Exhibit 1) History of the Ford Motor Company In 2015, Ford Motor Company, based in Dearborn, Michigan, had about 187,000 employees and 62 plants worldwide. It manufactured or distributed the automotive brands Ford and Lincoln across six continents and provided financial services via Ford Motor Credit. It was also the only company in the industry whose company name still honored the vision and legacy of its founder, Henry Ford. Ameriean annineer and inductrisl ienn Hanni Enrd had haan a tria innmrator ia didn’t inuant tha utomahila. Focus Page 1 of 25 7843 words WEPS 19 A A BIU ebe X2 x2 A Styles Styles Pane American engineer and industrial icon Henry Ford had been a true innovator. He didn’t invent the automobile or the assembly line, but through his ability to recognize opportunities, articulate a vision, and inspire others to join him in fulfilling that vision, he was responsible for making significant changes in the trajectory of the automobile industry and even in the history of manufacturing in America. Starting with the invention of the self-propelled Quadricycle in 1896, Ford developed other vehicles, primarily racing cars, that attracted a series of interested investors. In 1903, 12 investors backed him in the creation of a company to build and sell horseless carriages, and Ford Motor Company was born. Starting with the Model A, the company produced a series of successful vehicles, but in 1908 Henry Ford wanted to create a better, cheaper “motorcar for the great multitude.”e Working with a group of handpicked employees, he designed the Model T. The design was so successful, and demand so great, that Ford decided to investigate methods for increasing production and lowering costs. Borrowing concepts from other industries, by 1913 Ford had developed a moving assembly line for automobile manufacture. Although the work was so demanding that it created a high degree of employee turnover, the production process was significantly more efficient, reducing chassis assembly time from 12% hours to 2 hours 40 minutes. In 1904, Ford expanded into Canada and by 1925 had assembly plants in Europe, Argentina, South Africa, and Australia. By the end of 1919, Ford was producing 50 percent of all the cars in the United States, and the assembly line disruption in the industry had led to the demise of most of Ford’s rivals. The Automotive Industry and Ford Leadership The automotive industry in the United States had always been a highly competitive, cyclical business. In 2015 there were “a wide and growing variety of product offerings from a growing number of manufacturers,” including the electric-car lineup from Tesla Motors, self-styled as “not just an automaker, but also a technology and design company with a focus on energy innovation.”” The total number of cars and trucks sold to retail buyers, or “industry demand,” varied substantially from year to year depending on general economic conditions, the cost of purchasing and operating cars and trucks, and the availability of credit and fuel. Because cars and trucks were durable items, ponsumers could wait to replace them, and, starting in 2013, the average age of light vehicles on U.S. roads was over 11 years. Due to this, high replacement demand for cars and car parts was forecast to result in increased sales for 2015 and beyond. These sales would be aided by an improvement in the general economic situation, reduced gasoline prices, and lower interest rates for car loans, all contributing to the best results for U.S. auto sales since the 2008 recession.10 However, sales in the U.S. markets no longer belonged just to U.S. manufacturers (Exhibit 2). Originally dominated by the “big 3” Detroit-based car companies-Ford. General Motors. and Chrvsler- Focus 131% Page 2 of 25 7843 words Il ri (Body) Styles Styles Pane abe X2 x2 A I Originally dominated by the “big 3” Detroit-based car companies-Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler- competition in the United States had intensified since the 1980s, when Japanese carmakers began gaining a foothold in the market. To counter the problem of being viewed as foreign, Japanese companies Nissan, Toyota, and Honda had set up production facilities in the United States and thus gained acceptance from American consumers. Production quality and lean production were judged to be the major weapons that Japanese carmakers used to gain an advantage over American carmakers. Starting in 2003, because of innovative production processes that yielded better quality for American consumers, Toyota vehicles unquestionably became “a better value proposition” than Detroit’s products. Back in 1999, Ford Motor Company had been in good shape, having attained a U.S. market share of 24.8 percent, and had seen profits reacha remarkable $7.2 billion ($5.86 per share), with pretax income of $11 billion. At that time people number-one automobile manufacturer.12 But soon Toyota, through its innovative technology, management philosophy of continuous improvement, and cost arbitrage due to its presence in multiple geographic locations, was threatening to overtake GM and Ford. In addition, unfortunately, the profits at Ford in 1999 had come at the expense of investing in Ford’s future. Jacques Nasser, the CEO at that time, had focused on corporate acquisition and diversification rather than new vehicle development. By the time Chairman Bill Ford stepped in and fired Nasser in 2001, Ford was seeing declines in both market share and profitability. By 2005 market share had dropped to 18.6 percent and Ford had skidded out of control, losing $1.6 billion, pretax, in North American profits. It was obvious that Ford needed a change in order to adapt and survive. Observers believed that the Ford family would take action to prevent further losses: “Ford may need a strongman … a Ford characteristic-the ‘prime minister who actually runs the company under the ‘constitutional monarch,’ a member of the Ford family.” It was speculated that Mark Fields, named head of Ford’s North American operations in 2005, might be tapped to take that job.1 This became a legitimate observation about Ford’s approach to succession planning. even speculated that Ford would soon overtake General Motors as the world’s The Ford empire had been around for over a century, and the company had not gone outside its ranks for a p executive since hiring Ernest Breech away from General Motors Corporation in 1946 (see Exhibit 3).1 e 2 of 25 7843 words Focus X abe X2 x2 U Styles Styles Pane The Ford empire had been around for over a century, and the company had not gone outside its ranks for a top executive since hiring Ernest Breech away from General Motors Corporation in 1946 (see Exhibit 3).14 Since taking the CEO position in 2001, Bill Ford had tried several times to find a qualified successor, “going after such industry luminaries as Renault-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn and DaimlerChrysler Chairman Dieter Zetsche.”15 Among large corporations, it had become fairly common to hire a CEO from outside the family or board According to Joseph Bower from Harvard Business School, about one-third of the time at $

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